Detailed specifications
Import /
Export software tool
Viewer software
tool
Geocoding Processor
Interferometric Processor
Stereo Processor
Supported formats.
Currently Import / Export tool supports import of following
data types:
binary data;
graphical formats: TIFF, Geo
TIFF, JPEG, BMP;
international SAR data format
CEOS;
special format for ENVISAT
SAR data;
special format for Almaz1
SAR data;
digital terrain data formats:
GTOPO30, USGS DEM.
Data can be exported from internal format to following formats:
raw binary;
graphical formats: TIFF, Geo
TIFF, JPEG, BMP;
digital terrain data format
USGS DEM.
Tabulated information on import options into RDP format from external sources
and export options of RDP files to other formats is represented below.
Information on import options into RDP format from external
sources and export options of RDP files to other formats
File format 
Import 
Export 
Almaz1 
+ 
 
CEOS SIRC/X 
+ 
 
CEOS ERS UKPAF 
+ 
 
CEOS ERS IPAF 
+ 
 
CEOS Radarsat SDPF 
+ 
 
ENVISAT 
+ 
 
TIFF 
+ 
+ 
Binary data 
+ 
+ 
Windows Bitmap 
+ 
+ 
GTOPO30 
+ 
 
JPEG 
+ 
+ 
USGS 
+ 
+ 
Geo Tiff 
+ 
+ 
Viewer software tool
Data Types Radar internal RDP format supports a number of various
data types. The supported types could be divided into two categories: scalar
and complex types. For Scalar data each pixel corresponds to just one defined
data type (integer or float point).
Supported Scalar Data Types
Data type 
Notation 
Range of values 
Unsigned integer 8 bit 
U8 
0 to 255 
Unsigned integer 16 bit 
U16 
0 to 65 535 
Unsigned integer 32 bit 
U32 
0 to 4 294 967 295 
Signed integer 8 bit 
S8 
128 to 127 
Signed integer 16 bit 
S16 
32 768 to 32 767 
Signed integer 32 bit 
S32 
2 147 483 648 to 2 147 483 647 
With float point 32 bit 
F32 
. 
With float point 64bit 
F64 
. 
NOTE: the notation used in above outlined table is intended for the
short indication of corresponding data types. Notation for the complex data
types is similar to one for the scalar types but the letter C is added in front
of it. For instance, CF32 is the complex type that has two components of F32
type.
If RDP files contain the scalar type data, they are called as scalar
files. For the Complex data each pixel corresponds to two numbers of
one scalar type. The first of these numbers is identified as a real part,
and second one as an image part of complex data. Following by physical
content of the complex data, acquired by the remote sensing radar, they could
be presented as two derived components: amplitude (module of complex
number) and phase (argument of complex number). Corresponding complex
type is supported for each scalar type. The RDP files, which containing the
data of complex type, are identified as the complex files.
Commonly, the data of radar remote sensing are represented as a gray halftone
rasters. Each magnitude range of data values corresponds to some tone of gray
color. The relations between tones and data values are defined of the palette
and special transformation table (lookup table).
The term LookUp Table (LUT) is widely used in the image processing
applications. For instance, if we need to display the values from 0 up to 160
via 16 color levels, the simplest way will be to divide whole values range 0
 160 onto ten equal portions and assign to each portion its own color level
from 0 up to 16. The result of this operation is summarized in the table below:
0..10 
11..20 
21..30 
31..40 
....... 
131..140 
141..150 
151..160 
0 
1 
2 
3 

13 
14 
15 
It shows how values of pixels will be changed after their brightness transformation.
It clearly seen that this transformation is linear. The linear transformation
type is the most simple but sometimes the nonlinear transform type is applied.
In Viewer software tool you can
define your own transformation
table, linear and distinguished from linear;
change the palette;
assign the combination of brightness
values from different three files (one file on each color RGB channel) to pixels
in the Viewer window. This option provides a suitable way to perform the multi
frequency and multi polarization data from remote sensing sensors.
define the different methods
of histogram stretching, the interesting channels for multispectral images,
visualizing mode for radar complex (presented as the real and imagery parts)
images, select the interesting image area and decimation order.
The following ways of the histogram stretching is available currently:
under specified dispersion.
It means that only pixels with values not exceeded the range of m+N*dispersion,
are shown without suppression. Here m – is an average value and N – is a user’s
assigned number;
under two dispersion. This
is particular case of previous step, where N=2;
default stretching. 90% of
all pixels in vicinity of average value are displayed without suppression;
without stretching, The histogram
doesn't change;
minimummaximum stretching.
User should assign the desired minimum and maximum values for which histogram
will be stretched.
The histogram stretching doesn't change values in file, but affects on lookup
table only when the image opens.
Geocoding Processor
Geo Processor software provides:
Input SAR image transformation
from antenna coordinate system (ACS) to ground reference coordinate system (GFS)
 georeferensing;
Input SAR image transformation
from ACS or GFS to user given cartographic projection without using of Digital
Elevation Model (DEM)  geocoding;
Input SAR image transformation
from ACS or GFS to user given cartographic projection without using of DEM –
orthorectification.
Geo Processor software consists of next modules:
Georeferensing, geocoding and
orthorectification;
SAR platform modeling with
using of ephemeris data;
Coordinate system transformation
from orbital (inertial) to Greenwich and back;
Entering and controlling input
data;
Adjusting of input ephemeris
data using ground control points parameters.
Next local tasks are solved:
Recalculating SAR platform
motion parameters from one coordinate system to another;
Platform motion parameters
prognosis;
Platform motion parameters
approximation;
Platform motion parameters
correction;
Calculation ground to slant
range polynomial coefficients;
Solving of geocoding equations.
Geo Processor software compatible with next data formats:
Geocoding and orthorectification
– RADARSAT (SGF), ERS1/2 (SLC, SGF);
Georeferencing – ERS1/2 (SLC).
Used coordinate systems:
Absolute geocentric equatorial
(inertial) coordinate system (OXYZ)
Source point – Earth center.
Axe X – directed to point of equinox;
Axe Z – coincides with Earth rotation axe;
Axe Y complements the system to right hand.
Greenwich coordinate system
(Oxyz)
Source point – Earth center. System rotates with Earth.
Axe x – coincides with intersection of equatorial plane with plane of Greenwich
meridian;
Axe z  coincides with Earth rotation axe;
Axe y  complements the system to right hand.
The integration of differential platform motion equations and calculations of
ground point geodetic coordinates are realized.
Velocity baricentric coordinate
system (OXcYcZc)
Source point – mass center of platform.
Axe Xc – directed to platform velocity vector;
Axe Yc  perpendicular of orbital plane and parallel to kinetic moment vector
С (square integral).
Axe Zc  complements the system to right hand.
Used for geocoding equations solving.
Interferometric Processor
Import of data and auxiliary
information
 Data file reading.
 Parameters reading from CEOS format.
 Processing parameters formation.
Image coregistration
 Search of identical points on the master and slave images.
 Transformation of slave image to the master image geometry.
 Overlapping area determination.
Orbit correction for master
image with help of ground control points.
Baseline correction.
Preliminary processing
 Subset selection.
 Multilook parameters selection.
Interferogram and coherence
calculation
 Calculation of flattening coefficients for range and azimuth directions:
1) The choice of a mode "Precise" means calculation of coefficients
of compensation for each image pixel individually. Thus time for realization
of operation is increased.
2) In a mode "Fast" the coefficients of compensation calculated for
the central column and the central line of a picture are used.
3) In a mode "No flattening" flat Earth phase correction operation
will not be executed.
 Complex multiplication of master and transformed slave images.
Interferogram filtration
 Local estimation of phase noise parameters.
 Calculation of filtered phase values.
The following filters are accessible to use:
1) Average filter.
2) Spectral adaptive filter.
Phase unwrapping
 Conversion of wrapped [0, 2Pi] phase values to absolute ones. The following
methods are accessible to use: 1) Unweighted phase unwrapping.
2) Picard iteration method.
3) Conjugate gradients method.
4) Growing pixels method.
Absolute phase to relative
height recalculation
Absolute phase to absolute
height recalculation
 Transformation of absolute phase to height.
 Georeferencing of height matrix.
Geocoding of height matrix
 Geocoding of height matrix.
 Orthorectification of height matrix.
Stereo Processor
Import and
auxiliary data handling
 Reading of SAR data files.
 Reading of CEOS data files.
 Generation of parameter’s set needed for processing.
Georeferencing
(for slant range data only)
 Transformation from slant range to ground range.
 Resampling to grid with same X and Y axes.
Coregistration
of images
 Rotation and resampling of Slave image relatively to Master one with use
of Tie Points:
1) Coregistration on two tie points;
2) Coregistration on an ephemeris.
 Selection of overlapping areas on both images.
Preprocessing
 Subset of interested areas.
 Lowpass filtering.
Parallaxes
to heights conversion rate
 Calculation of coefficients for parallaxestoheights conversion from CEOS
ephemeris.
 Calculation of coefficients for heights conversion with use of Tie Points.
Stereo matching
 Generation of radar parallaxes matrix.
 Generation of correlation functions matrix.
Smoothing
 Lowpass filtering of parallaxes matrix.
Relief heights
generation
 Parallaxes to reference heights conversion.
 Absolute heights calculation from GCP.
 Absolute heights calculation from ephemeris data.
Transformation
to reference projection
 Geocoding of heights matrix.
 Orthorectification of heights matrix.
