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Greece

PHOTOMOD Lite Project Contest

WINNER

Nomination: Education with PHOTOMOD Lite
Institute name: Laboratory of Photogrammetry, School of Rural and Surveying Engineer, National Technical University of Athens

Contact Person: Andreas Georgopoulos, Sevasti Tapinaki
e-mail: drag@central.ntua.gr, sevi@survey.ntua.gr

The Laboratory of Photogrammetry and the staff employed in it are the part of Topography Department of the Rural & Surveying Engineers School of Athens National Technical University. Photogrammetry in the Greek Universities is only lectured in the School of RSE of the NTUA and of Thessaloniki Aristotle University.

NTUA's Laboratory of Photogrammetry assignment is to fully educate and train the students on Photogrammetric issues, encouraging also relative research. At the same time, the Laboratory's infrastructure is constantly updated and improved, in order to serve its objectives in the above mentioned sectors. Research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry is carried out by the staff of Topography Department relative to the thematic area of Photogrammetry. It consists of research projects funded by various sources, independent scientific research and PhD Theses supervision and elaboration. The results of all that research activity is presented in the publications of the Laboratory members. The Laboratory of Photogrammetry is aiming to “produce” new knowledge and to educate new theoretical and practical Photogrammetry researchers through basic and applied research procedures. More specific research issues are digital cartography and automations, measurements on simple images, large scale surveying, G.I.S. applications, etc.

According to the UnderGraduate Studies Program of the SRSE — NTUA the Laboratory of Photogrammetry is responsible for the education and training of the Faculty's students on the following areas, through courses and Master Theses attendance. The courses being taught by Laboratory members are:

COURSE SEMESTER
Photogrammetry I 5
Photogrammetry II 6
Photographic Data Acquisition 6
Photogrammetry III 7
Summer Photogrammetry Practice 8
Surveying and Documentation of Monuments 9

The Laboratory is also involved in the educational procedures of the post-graduate programs: “ GeoInformatics” (SRSE — NTUA), and “Monuments Protection” (School of Architecture). The last five (5) years the Laboratory is using PHOTOMOD for educational purposes in mainly three of these courses: Photogrammetry II, Summer Photogrammetry Practice and Surveying and Documentation of Monuments. The extensive use of the PHOTOMOD Lite version has given the opportunity to use a digital photogrammetric system for the practice and training of many students at the same time. The students have the opportunity to exploit the availability of the Lite version in order to train at home.

Course Photogrammetry II — 6th semester

This course is being taught at the 6th semester of the school and its aim is to educate and train the students on the following main areas:

  • Methods for Aerial Triangulation (independent stereopairs and bundle adjustment)
  • Digital Terrain Model production
  • Orthophotography
  • Satellite images and photogrammetry
  • Lidar/SAR/Laser scanning
  • At the same time the students have to elaborate and deliver exercises based on the theory where some of them are being elaborated using PHOTOMOD Lite.
    The duration of the course is 13 weeks with two two-hour lectures per week. The necessary lectures for the theory of a certain area are followed by one lecture for the assignment of the exercise based on this theory. The website of the course ecourses.dbnet.ntua.gr is being constantly updated during the semester and contains the course material (lectures slides, exercises), announcements etc.
    During the 6th semester of 2012 approximately 100 students attended in total 30 hours of lectures for theory and 18 hours for the assignment of the following exercises:
    Exercise 1 Flight Planning
    Exercise 2 and 3 Photogrammetric Orientations (Interior, Relative) using PHOTOMOD Lite
    Exercise 4 Accuracies of stereo restitution
    Exercise 5 Aerial Triangulation using PHOTOMOD Lite
    Exercise 6 Stereoscopic drawing using PHOTOMOD Lite and anaglyph glasses
    Exercise 7 Automatic creation of DTM and Orthorectification of images using PHOTOMOD Lite (Mosaic)

    The delivery date was set two weeks after the assignment of each exercise. For each exercise the students had to compose a technical report and deliver them, along with the products, to certain email addresses, that were created especially for this purpose. The exercises were being corrected and the students received a reply mail with comments and corrections.
    For the exercises 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 that where elaborated using PHOTOMOD Lite the laboratory supplied the students with the following materials:

  • One strip flight with five (5) aerial images of the National Technical University Campus.
  • The calibration certificate of the camera.
  • A txt file with fifteen (15) ground control points coordinates in GGRS87 / Greek Grid coordinate system with coordinate accuracy 0.10 m.
  • A pdf file with the description and the exact position of the control points.
  • Pdf files with instruction manual in Greek that was especially written for each exercise. The manual contains all the processing steps and tools of PHOTOMOD Lite that the students had to use for the exercises and also all the parameters that they had to define. This material was based on the extensive and comprehensive on-line manual which comes with both the Lite and the Normal versions.
  • The .exe file for the installation of PHOTOMOD Lite. The source aerial images were captured in August 1999 using the RMK TOP 15 with the parameters shown in and they images were scanned using the Z/I PS1 photogrammetric scanner with pixel size 14 μm namely 1800 dpi image resolution.

    Scale of source images ≈1:6000 Calibration date 02/02/1999
    Camera type Film X: 0.007 mm
    Y: 0.001 mm
    Focal length 152.611 mm
    Distortion Radial
    Point of symmetry (zero distortion) To principal point


    The Block Scheme of the Strip

    The lectures for the assignment of the exercises were given in the GeoInformatics Center (GC) that was established in March 1996 and is the focal point on Information Technology at the School of Rural and Surveying Engineers. The GC provides among others thirty-four (34) Dell Studio XPS Intel I7 2.8 GHz, RAM 4GB, HD 500GB, VGA 512 MB ΑGP, DVD-RW, Ethernet Gigabit, 18.5’’ TFT monitor and twenty-five (25) Dell GX620 Intel PΙV 3 GHz, RAM 1GB, HD 80GB, VGA 128 MB ΑGP, DVD-ROM, Ethernet Gigabit, 17' CRT monitor.

    The hardware used for the elaboration of the exercises was mainly the personal computers of GC but also some student’s personal computers and laptops with unknown characteristics to us. The projector of GC was used for the presentation and the explanation of PHOTOMOD Lite.

    Course Summer Photogrammetry Practice – 8th Semester

    The main objective of the course Summer Photogrammetry Practice is the familiarization of the students with the application of basic photogrammetric processes. The specific objectives of the course which are equal to each other are:

    I. The acquaintance with an integrated photogrammetric project

    II. The consolidation of theoretical knowledge on all subjects of the undergraduate curriculumnot only on the Photogrammetry — by clarifying any obscure concepts

    III. The editing and production of final products During this course, which lasts 25 full-time days usually in July the students undertake to complete specific projects on photogrammetric issues, such as development of software for photogrammetric calculations, production of orthophotomaps, bibliographic research, etc.

    Especially for those students who chose to join the team that does part of the course at the archaeological site of Kimisala in Rhodes Island the practice employs the integrated nature of a professional work. In this sense the students are invited to experience all stages of a photogrammetric work, namely:

  • planning of image acquisition,
  • selection of place and marking of ground control points,
  • data collection in the field,
  • check and controls
  • calculations
  • photogrammetric processing and
  • editing of final delivery

    Eleven (11) students attended the course that took place on July of 2011. The subject of the project was the production of the orthophotomap of the road network part of the destroyed ancient city of Vasilika in the Kimisala archaeological site in 1:50 scale.

    The source images were captured using the digital camera CANON MIII and a lens of focal length 24mm. The stereopairs had 70-80% overlap.

    The ground control points were measured with a total station and the coordinates were calculated in Cartesian Right (Local right Cartesian reference system) only oriented to the North of GGRS’87, with coordinates’ accuracy 0.01m.

    For the needs of the shooting from a height of about 6-7 m a special construction of tripod was used.

    In this project PHOTOMOD was used for close range photogrammetry. All the photogrammetric processing was made in PHOTOMOD Lite and the orthoimages with cell size of 0.005 m were produced in PHOTOMOD Mosaic module. The necessary stereoscopic processing was made using anaglyph glasses.

    The collection of DTM was made manually with a lot of breaklines and not so many individual points because of the odd shapes and forms of the stones.

    The final orthophotomap was created in AutoCAD.

    Course — project Surveying and Documentation of Monuments — 9th Semester

    This course-project is being taught at the 9th semester of the curriculum and its aim is to educate and train students on the Geometric documentation of monuments with topographic and photogrammetric methods. The goals of this course-project are:

    A. Integration of the already gained knowledge (geodesy, Photogrammetry, least squares method etc.)

    B. Supplementation with new knowledge

    C. Raising awareness on cultural Heritage issues

    D. Practical application

    During the semester there are lectures for theory relating to:

  • History of Architecture
  • “Reading” of monument
  • Digitalization of Cultural Heritage
  • Accuracy networks, Monitoring of deformation and micromovements
  • Collection of 3D data
  • Products of Geometric Documentation (specificities, demands, 2D-3D, differentiation from conventional products)
  • Information Systems of Monuments
  • etc
  • At the same time students have to deliver certain products for a certain monument usually in Athens.

    During 2012 ten students attended this course and the monument that they documented was the Temple of Hephaestus. The Temple of Hephaestus (also called Thissio) is one of the most preserved ancient Greek temples of Space. It was dedicated to the god Hephaestus and Athena Ergani. Located in the area of Theseus this got its name because of the old now revised version of the temple to Theseus. The Temple of Hephaestus is accessible to the public as part of Ancient Agora archaeological site.

    The products that the students were asked to deliver were:

  • one horizontal section at a level of 1.1m above the main floor at a scale 1:50
  • one vertical section that shows the main entrance at a scale 1:50
  • and a part of the south façade at a scale 1:50
  • The two sections were measured with a total station and produced only vector drawings.
    The façade had to be a raster and vector drawing so it was decided to use photogrammetric methods and finally produce orthoimages using the PHOTOMOD Lite. In this project PHOTOMOD was used for close range photogrammetry.

    The students trained on how to:

  • Plan the image acquisition for the stereopairs,
  • Mark the ground control points and measure them with a total station,
  • Calibrate the camera
  • Perform the photography themselves
  • Use the PHOTOMOD Lite for the photogrammetric orientations and the production of
  • orthoimages.

    The fieldworks lasted two days while the office work lasted four weeks considering the educational nature of the project till the final delivery of the Temple south facade drawing.

    The source images were captured using the digital camera CANON MIII and a lens with focal length 24mm. The same camera set with the previous mentioned course.

    Finally two strips were made with approximately 70% overlap:

  • one for the upper part of the Temple containing the columns and the top part consisting of 15 images
  • and one for the stairs of the Temple, consisting of 16 images
  • The collection of DTM was made manually and because of the strong anaglyph of the object considering the large scale images strange and wrong triangles were created in the TIN. The problems with the strange triangles were solved with the decision to create separate TINs for several elevations. Finally five elevations were defined such as the three elevations of the stairs one elevation for the columns and one for the wall of the Temple.


    DTM for the three elevations of the stairs

    The produced orthoimages were imported in AutoCAD were the final drawing was produced.

    Photomod software is also extensively used in Diploma theses (i.e. Master’s theses) when they are concerned with the production of photogrammetric products such as vector drawings or orthophotomaps.

    It is evident that within the curriculum of the School of Rural & Surveying Engineering full exploitation of the Photomod software is being made. Especially the availability of the Lite version gives the opportunity to all students to gain real hands-on experience to a Digital Photogrammetric Workstation. In this way they are fully equipped to confront any photogrammetric project in their professional life after graduation.

     Download a full description of the project (PDF, 2,8 MB)


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